Perhaps the sentiments contained in the following pages, are not YET sufficiently fashionable to procure them general favour; a long habit of not thinking a thing WRONG, gives it a superficial appearance of being RIGHT, and raises at first a
formidable outcry in defense of custom.
The wise, and the worthy, need not the triumph of a pamphlet; and those whose sentiments are
injudicious, or unfriendly, will cease of themselves unless too much pains are bestowed upon their conversion.
The laying a Country desolate with Fire and Sword, declaring War against the natural rights of all Mankind, and
extirpating the Defenders thereof from the Face of the Earth, is the Concern of every Man to whom Nature hath given the Power of feeling
Some writers have so
confounded society with government, as to leave little or no distinction between them; whereas they are not only different, but have different origins.
Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an
intolerable one; for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries BY A GOVERNMENT, which we might expect in a country WITHOUT GOVERNMENT, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer.
Thus necessity, like a gravitating power, would soon form our newly arrived emigrants into society, the reciprocal blessings of which, would
supersede, and render the obligations of law and government unnecessary while they remained perfectly just to each other
but as nothing but heaven is
impregnable to vice, it will unavoidably happen, that in proportion as they surmount the first difficulties of emigration, which bound them together in a common cause, they will begin to relax in their duty and attachment to each other
remissness will point out the necessity of establishing some form of government to supply the defect of moral virtue.
To say that the constitution of England is a UNION of three powers reciprocally CHECKING each other, is
farcical, either the words have no meaning, or they are flat contradictions.
There is something
exceedingly ridiculous in the composition of monarchy; it first excludes a man from the means of information, yet empowers him to act in cases where the highest judgment is required.
That the crown is this overbearing part in the English constitution, needs not be mentioned, and that it derives its whole
consequence merely from being the giver of places and pensions, is self-evident, wherefore, though we have been wise enough to shut and lock a door against absolute monarchy, we at the same time have been foolish enough to put the crown in possession of the key.
An inquiry into the CONSTITUTIONAL ERRORS in the English form of government is at this time highly necessary; for as we are never in a proper condition of doing justice to others, while we continue under the influence of some leading partiality, so neither are we capable of doing it to ourselves while we remain fettered by any
And as a man, who is attached to a prostitute, is unfitted to choose or judge a wife, so any
prepossession in favour of a rotten constitution of government will disable us from discerning a good one.
Oppression is often the CONSEQUENCE, but seldom or never the MEANS of riches; and though avarice will preserve a man from being necessitously poor, it generally makes him too
timorous to be wealthy.
impious is the title of sacred majesty applied to a worm, who in the midst of his splendor is crumbling into dust!
exalting one man so greatly above the rest cannot be justified on the equal rights of nature, so neither can it be defended on the authority of scripture; for the will of the Almighty, as declared by Gideon and the prophet Samuel, expressly disapproves of government by kings.
And when a man seriously reflects on the idolatrous homage which is paid to the persons of kings, he need not wonder that the Almighty, ever jealous of his honour, should disapprove of a form of government which so impiously invades the
prerogative of heaven.
Words need not be more
explicit; Gideon doth not decline the honour, but denieth their right to give it; neither doth he compliment them with invented declarations of his thanks, but in the positive style of a prophet charges them with disaffection to their proper Sovereign, the King of heaven.
This accounts for the continuation of monarchy; neither do the characters of the few good kings which have lived since, either
sanctify the title, or blot out the sinfulness of the origin; the high encomium given of David takes no notice of him OFFICIALLY AS A KING, but only as a MAN after God's own heart.
These portions of scripture are direct and positive. They admit of no
equivocal construction. That the Almighty hath here entered his protest against monarchical government, is true, or the scripture is false.
To the evil of monarchy we have added that of hereditary succession; and as the first is a degradation and lessening of ourselves, so the second, claimed as a matter of right, is an insult and an
imposition on posterity.
And though they might say, "We choose you for OUR head," they could not, without
manifest injustice to their children, say, "that your children and your children's children shall reign over OURS for ever."
This is supposing the present race of kings in the world to have had an honourable origin; whereas it is more than probable, that could we take off the dark covering of antiquities, and trace them to their first rise, that we should find the first of them nothing better than the principal
ruffian of some restless gang, whose savage manners or preeminence in subtlety obtained the title of chief among plunderers
and who by increasing in power, and extending his
depredations, overawed the quiet and defenseless to purchase their safety by frequent contributions.
Men who look upon themselves born to reign, and others to obey, soon grow
insolent; selected from the rest of mankind their minds are early poisoned by importance; and the world they act in differs so materially from the world at large, that they have but little opportunity of knowing its true interests, and when they succeed to the government are frequently the most ignorant and unfit of any throughout the dominions.
Another evil which attends hereditary succession is, that the throne is subject to be possessed by a minor at any age; all which time the regency, acting under the cover of a king, have every opportunity and
inducement to betray their trust.
The same national misfortune happens, when a king, worn out with age and
infirmity, enters the last stage of human weakness.
In both these cases the public becomes a prey to every
miscreant, who can tamper successfully with the follies either of age or infancy.
plausible plea, which hath ever been offered in favour of hereditary succession, is, that it preserves a nation from civil wars; and were this true, it would be weighty; whereas, it is the most barefaced falsity ever imposed upon mankind.
In the following pages I offer nothing more than simple facts, plain arguments, and common sense; and have no other Preliminaries to settle with the reader, than that he will
divest himself of prejudice and prepossession, and suffer his reason and his feelings to determine for themselves
As much hath been said of the advantages of
reconciliation which, like an agreeable dream, hath passed away and left us as we were, it is but right, that we should examine the contrary side of the argument, and inquire into some of the many material injuries which these colonies sustain, and always will sustain, by being connected with, and dependent on Great Britain
I have heard it asserted by some, that as America hath flourished under her former connection with Great Britain that the same connection is necessary towards her future happiness, and will always have the same effect. Nothing can be more
fallacious than this kind of argument.
Even brutes do not devour their young, nor savages make war upon their families; wherefore the assertion, if true, turns to her reproach; but it happens not to be true, or only partly so and the phrase PARENT or MOTHER COUNTRY hath been jesuitically adopted by the king and his parasites, with a low papistical design of gaining an unfair bias on the
credulous weakness of our minds.
But the injuries and disadvantages we sustain by that connection, are without number; and our duty to mankind at large, as well as to ourselves, instruct us to
renounce the alliance: Because, any submission to, or dependence on Great Britain, tends directly to involve this continent in European wars and quarrels; and sets us at variance with nations, who would otherwise seek our friendship, and against whom, we have neither anger nor complaint.
It is the true interest of America to steer clear of European
contentions, which she never can do, while by her dependence on Britain, she is made the make-weight in the scale of British politics.
It is the good fortune of many to live distant from the scene of sorrow; the evil is not sufficient brought to their doors to make THEM feel the
precariousness with which all American property is possessed.
But if you have, and still can shake hands with the murderers, then are you unworthy of the name of husband, father, friend, or lover, and whatever may be your rank or title in life, you have the heart of a coward, and the spirit of a
repugnant to reason, to the universal order of things, to all examples from former ages, to suppose, that this continent can longer remain subject to any external power.
Small islands not capable of protecting themselves, are the proper objects for kingdoms to take under their care; but there is something very absurd, in supposing a continent to be
perpetually governed by an island.
And as he hath shewn himself such an
inveterate enemy to liberty, and discovered such a thirst for arbitrary power; is he, or is he not, a proper man to say to these colonies, "YOU SHALL MAKE NO LAWS BUT WHAT I PLEASE."
Wherefore, her own interest leads her to
suppress the growth of OURS in every case which doth not promote her advantage, or in the least interferes with it.
That as even the best terms, which we can expect to obtain, can amount to no more than a temporary
expedient, or a kind of government by guardianship, which can last no longer than till the colonies come of age, so the general face and state of things, in the interim, will be unsettled and unpromising.
To talk of friendship with those in whom our reason forbids us to have faith, and our affections wounded through a thousand pores instruct us to detest, is madness and
Common sense will tell us, that the power which hath endeavoured to
subdue us, is of all others the most improper to defend us.
Wherefore, the PRESENT TIME is the TRUE TIME for establishing it. The intimacy which is contracted in infancy, and the friendship which is formed in misfortune, are, of all others, the most lasting and
TO CONCLUDE, however strange it may appear to some, or however unwilling they may be to think so, matters not, but many strong and striking reasons may be given, to shew, that nothing can settle our affairs so
expeditiously as an open and determined declaration for independance.
America doth not yet know what
opulence is; and although the progress which she hath made stands unparalleled in the history of other nations, it is but childhood, compared with what she would be capable of arriving at, had she, as she ought to have, the legislative powers in her own hands.
He who takes nature for his guide is not easily beaten out of his argument, and on that ground, I answer GENERALLY—THAT INDEPENDANCE BEING A SINGLE SIMPLE LINE, CONTAINED WITHIN OURSELVES; AND RECONCILIATION, A MATTER EXCEEDINGLY PERPLEXED AND COMPLICATED, AND IN WHICH, A TREACHEROUS
CAPRICIOUS COURT IS TO INTERFERE, GIVES THE ANSWER WITHOUT A DOUBT.
Besides, the taking up arms, merely to enforce the repeal of a
pecuniary law, seems as unwarrantable by the divine law, and as repugnant to human feelings, as the taking up arms to enforce obedience thereto.
Sincerely wishing, that as men and christians, ye may always fully and uninterruptedly enjoy every civil and religious right; and be, in your turn, the means of securing it to others; but that the example which ye have unwisely set, of mingling religion with politics, MAY BE DISAVOWED AND
REPROBATED BY EVERY INHABITANT OF AMERICA.