When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that
impel them to such a course.
We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.
Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and, accordingly, all experience has shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they were accustomed.
Such has been the patient
sufferance of the women under this government, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to demand the equal station to which they are entitled.
The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and
usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her.
compelled her to submit to law in the formation of which she had no voice.
He has withheld from her rights which are given to the most ignorant and
degraded men, both natives and foreigners.
Having deprived her of this first right as a citizen, the elective
franchise, thereby leaving her without representation in the halls of legislation, he has oppressed her on all sides.
He has made her morally, an irresponsible being, as she can commit many crimes with
impunity, provided they be done in the presence of her husband.
In the covenant of marriage, she is compelled to promise obedience to her husband, he becoming, to all intents and purposes, her master—the law giving him power to deprive her of her liberty and to administer
He has so framed the laws of divorce, as to what shall be the proper causes and, in case of separation, to whom the guardianship of the children shall be given, as to be wholly regardless of the happiness of the women—the law, in all cases, going upon a false
supposition of the supremacy of man and giving all power into his hands.
He has monopolized nearly all the profitable employments, and from those she is permitted to follow, she receives but a scanty
He has denied her the
facilities for obtaining a thorough education, all colleges being closed against her.
He allows her in church, as well as state, but a subordinate position, claiming
apostolic authority for her exclusion from the ministry, and, with some exceptions, from any public participation in the affairs of the church.
He has created a false public
sentiment by giving to the world a different code of morals for men and women, by which moral delinquencies which exclude women from society are not only tolerated but deemed of little account in man.
He has usurped the
prerogative of Jehovah himself, claiming it as his right to assign for her a sphere of action, when that belongs to her conscience and to her God.
Now, in view of this entire disfranchisement of one-half the people of this country, their social and religious degradation, in view of the unjust laws above mentioned, and because women do feel themselves
aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred rights, we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.
In entering upon the great work before us, we
anticipate no small amount of misconception, misrepresentation, and ridicule; but we shall use every instrumentality within our power to effect our object.
We shall employ agents, circulate tracts, petition the state and national legislatures, and
endeavor to enlist the pulpit and the press in our behalf.
Whereas, the great precept of nature is conceded to be that "man shall pursue his own true and substantial happiness," Blackstone in his Commentaries remarks that this law of nature, being
coeval with mankind and dictated by God himself, is, of course, superior in obligation to any other.
Resolved, That such laws as conflict, in any way, with the true and substantial happiness of woman, are contrary to the great
precept of nature and of no validity, for this is "superior in obligation to any other."
Resolved, that all laws which prevent woman from occupying such a station in society as her
conscience shall dictate, or which place her in a position inferior to that of man, are contrary to the great precept of nature and therefore of no force or authority.
Resolved, that the women of this country ought to be enlightened in regard to the laws under which they live, that they may no longer publish their degradation by declaring themselves satisfied with their present position, nor their ignorance, by
asserting that they have all the rights they want.
Resolved, that the same amount of virtue, delicacy, and refinement of behavior that is required of woman in the social state also be required of man, and the same
transgressions should be visited with equal severity on both man and woman.
Resolved, that the objection of indelicacy and
impropriety, which is so often brought against woman when she addresses a public audience, comes with a very ill grace from those who encourage, by their attendance, her appearance on the stage, in the concert, or in feats of the circus.
Resolved, that woman has too long rested satisfied in the
circumscribed limits which corrupt customs and a perverted application of the Scriptures have marked out for her, and that it is time she should move in the enlarged sphere which her great Creator has assigned her.
Resolved, that the equality of human rights results necessarily from the fact of the identity of the race in
capabilities and responsibilities.
Resolved, that the speedy success of our cause depends upon the
zealous and untiring efforts of both men and women for the overthrow of the monopoly of the pulpit, and for the securing to woman an equal participation with men in the various trades, professions, and commerce.
it is demonstrably the right and duty of woman, equally with man, to promote every
righteous cause by every
and this being a self-evident truth growing out of the divinely implanted principles of human nature, any custom or authority
adverse to it, whether modern or wearing the hoary sanction of antiquity, is to be regarded as a self-evident falsehood, and at war with mankind.