WORD LISTS

Social Studies vocabulary from the majority opinion, Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

May 16, 2011
--created by VocabGrabber ( www.visualthesaurus.com/vocabgrabber)
equal protection of the laws
This segregation was alleged to deprive the plaintiffs of the equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment.
Fourteenth Amendment
This segregation was alleged to deprive the plaintiffs of the equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment.
segregate
The plaintiffs contend that segregated public schools are not "equal" and cannot be made "equal," and that hence they are deprived of the equal protection of the laws.
segregation
In each instance,[p488] they had been denied admission to schools attended by white children under laws requiring or permitting segregation according to race.
legal representative
They are premised on different facts and different local conditions, but a common legal question justifies their consideration together in this consolidated opinion. [n1][p487]

In each of the cases, minors of the Negro race, through their legal repres
rural area
The curriculum was usually rudimentary; ungraded schools were common in rural areas; the school term was but three months a year in many states, and compulsory school attendance was virtually unknown.
plaintiff
This segregation was alleged to deprive the plaintiffs of the equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment.
public school
They are premised on different facts and different local conditions, but a common legal question justifies their consideration together in this consolidated opinion. [n1][p487]

In each of the cases, minors of the Negro race, through their legal representatives, seek the aid of the courts in obtaining admission to the public schools of their community on a nonsegregated basis.
class action
This disposition makes unnecessary any discussion whether such segregation also violates the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. [n12]

Because these are class actions, because of the wide applicability of this decision, and because of the great variety of local conditions, the formulation of decrees in these cases presents problems of considerable complexity.
graduate school
78, the validity of the doctrine itself was not challenged. [n8] In more recent cases, all on the graduate school[p492] level, inequality was found in that specific benefits enjoyed by white students were denied to Negro students of the same educational qualifications.
Negro
They are premised on different facts and different local conditions, but a common legal question justifies their consideration together in this consolidated opinion. [n1][p487]

In each of the cases, minors of the Negro race, through their legal representatives, seek the aid of the courts in obtaining admission to the public schools of their community on a nonsegregated basis.
docket
In order that we may have the full assistance of the parties in formulating decrees, the cases will be restored to the docket, and the parties are requested to present further argument on Questions 4 and 5 previously propounded by the Court for the reargument this Term [n13] The Attorney General[p496] of the United States is again invited to participate.
education
An additional reason for the inconclusive nature of the Amendment's history with respect to segregated schools is the status of public education at that time. [n4] In the South, the movement toward free common schools, supported[p490] by general taxation, had not yet taken hold.
curriculum
The curriculum was usually rudimentary; ungraded schools were common in rural areas; the school term was but three months a year in many states, and compulsory school attendance was virtually unknown.
due process
This disposition makes unnecessary any discussion whether such segregation also violates the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. [n12]

Because these are class actions, because of the wide applicability of this decision, and because of the great variety of local conditions, the formulation of decrees in these cases presents problems of considerable complexity.
situate
Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs and others similarly situated for whom the actions have been brought are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.
Court
In each of the cases other than the Delaware case, a three-judge federal district court denied relief to the plaintiffs on the so-called "separate but equal" doctrine announced by this Court in Plessy v.
doctrine
In each of the cases other than the Delaware case, a three-judge federal district court denied relief to the plaintiffs on the so-called "separate but equal" doctrine announced by this Court in Plessy v.
Education
Education of white children was largely in the hands of private groups.
consolidate
They are premised on different facts and different local conditions, but a common legal question justifies their consideration together in this consolidated opinion. [n1][p487]

In each of the cases, minors of the Negro race, through their legal representatives, seek the aid of the courts in obtaining admission to the public schools of their community on a nonsegregated basis.
intangible
Oklahoma State Regents, supra, the Court, in requiring that a Negro admitted to a white graduate school be treated like all other students, again resorted to intangible considerations: ". . . his ability to study, to engage in discussions and exchange views with other students, and, in general, to learn his profession." [p*494] Such considerations apply with added force to children in grade and high schools.
local government
Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments.
regent
Oklahoma State Regents, 339 U.S.
armed forces
It is required in the performance of our most basic public responsibilities, even service in the armed forces.
Nation
We must consider public education in the light of its full development and its present place in American life throughout[p493] the Nation.
consideration
They are premised on different facts and different local conditions, but a common legal question justifies their consideration together in this consolidated opinion. [n1][p487]

In each of the cases, minors of the Negro race, through their legal representatives, seek the aid of the courts in obtaining admission to the public schools of their community on a nonsegregated basis.
decree
This disposition makes unnecessary any discussion whether such segregation also violates the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. [n12]

Because these are class actions, because of the wide applicability of this decision, and because of the great variety of local conditions, the formulation of decrees in these cases presents problems of considerable complexity.
Attorney General
In order that we may have the full assistance of the parties in formulating decrees, the cases will be restored to the docket, and the parties are requested to present further argument on Questions 4 and 5 previously propounded by the Court for the reargument this Term [n13] The Attorney General[p496] of the United States is again invited to participate.
attorney general
The Attorneys General of the states requiring or permitting segregation in public education will also be permitted to appear as amici curiae upon request to do so by September 15, 1954, and submission of briefs by October 1, 1954. [n14]

It is so ordered.
transportation
Ferguson, supra, involving not education but transportation. [n6] American courts have since labored with the doctrine for over half a century.
taxation
An additional reason for the inconclusive nature of the Amendment's history with respect to segregated schools is the status of public education at that time. [n4] In the South, the movement toward free common schools, supported[p490] by general taxation, had not yet taken hold.
attorney
In order that we may have the full assistance of the parties in formulating decrees, the cases will be restored to the docket, and the parties are requested to present further argument on Questions 4 and 5 previously propounded by the Court for the reargument this Term [n13] The Attorney General[p496] of the United States is again invited to participate.
psychological
Segregation with the sanction of law, therefore, has a tendency to [retard] the educational and mental development of negro children and to deprive them of some of the benefits they would receive in a racial[ly] integrated school system. [n10]Whatever may have been the extent of psychological knowledge at the time of Plessy v.
legal
They are premised on different facts and different local conditions, but a common legal question justifies their consideration together in this consolidated opinion. [n1][p487]

In each of the cases, minors of the Negro race, through their legal representatives, seek the aid of the courts in obtaining admission to the public schools of their community on a nonsegregated basis.
democratic
Compulsory school attendance laws and the great expenditures for education both demonstrate our recognition of the importance of education to our democratic society.
jurisdiction
Because of the obvious importance of the question presented, the Court took jurisdiction. [n2] Argument was heard in the 1952 Term, and reargument was heard this Term on certain questions propounded by the Court. [n3][p489]

Reargument was largely devoted to the circumstances surrounding the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868.
congressional
It is true that public school education at the time of the Amendment had advanced further in the North, but the effect of the Amendment on Northern States was generally ignored in the congressional debates.
Supreme Court
In the Delaware case, the Supreme Court of Delaware adhered to that doctrine, but ordered that the plaintiffs be admitted to the white schools because of their superiority to the Negro schools.
Congress
It covered exhaustively consideration of the Amendment in Congress, ratification by the states, then-existing practices in racial segregation, and the views of proponents and opponents of the Amendment.
legislature
What others in Congress and the state legislatures had in mind cannot be determined with any degree of certainty.
representative
They are premised on different facts and different local conditions, but a common legal question justifies their consideration together in this consolidated opinion. [n1][p487]

In each of the cases, minors of the Negro race, through their legal representatives, seek the aid of the courts in obtaining admission to the public schools of their community on a nonsegregated basis.
federal
In each of the cases other than the Delaware case, a three-judge federal district court denied relief to the plaintiffs on the so-called "separate but equal" doctrine announced by this Court in Plessy v.

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