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What's in a -Nym?

There are all sorts of words in English based on the -onym word part, which derives from a Greek word that means name. Probably everyone knows these:
  • homonym (same + name): a word that sounds like another word.
  • synonym (together + name): a word that means the same as another word.
  • antonym (against + name): a word that's the opposite of another word.
  • pseudonym (false + name): a fictitious name for a person.
  • acronym (top + name): a word formed from letters in a phrase (NASA, laser, AIDS, radar, anddepending on how broadly you want to define the word, perhaps also ETA and modem).

There are some -onym words that might be a little more obscure. An eponym (upon + name) is a word or name that's derived from a person: Alexandria (for Alexander the Great), Machiavellian, Alzheimer's disease, sandwich, boycott, silhouette. Orin Hargraves recently wrote about meronym (part + name), a word in which a part stands for the whole (heads to mean people), and metonym (after/with + name), a similar word in which one word is used to represent a related concept (the crown to mean the monarch). Even if you've never seen it before, you can probably guess that cryptonym (hidden + name) refers to a secret name or codename.

Biology gives us the tautonym ([the] same + name), a scientific name in which the genus and species are the same, like Bison bison and Gorilla gorilla. The word tautonym is also sometimes used to refer to words that are made up of repetitive sounds, like tutu, bonbon, and hubba-hubba. Speaking of language, lexicography gives us the paronym (beside + name), a word that shares a stem with another word, like wise/wisdom and female/feminine.

In geography, a toponym (place + name) is a word for a place. Examples include Seattle, which was named for a local Native American chief; France, named by the Romans after the inhabitants, the Franks; and Mauna Loa, a volcano whose name means "Long Mountain" in Hawaiian.  A comparatively recent addition to the -onym club is demonym (people + name), which is a name used for the inhabitants of a particular place — Californian, Hoosier, Liverpudlian, Nazarene.

These are all useful, but some naming terms seem like they're more for fun. For example, there's contranym or contronym (against + name), which is also referred to as an autoantonym (self + against + name). This is a word with two meanings that are opposites. For example, to sanction can mean both to condemn and to permit; oversight can refer both to supervision and neglect. Fans of the Amelia Bedelia series of children's books might remember that when she was asked to dust the furniture, instead of "undusting" it, she dusted it with dusting powder — another contranym!

Another example that seems like it's just for fun is aptonym or aptronym (appropriate + name), which is a name that's particularly suited to a person. Examples are the poet William Wordsworth and the casino owner Steve Wynn. One of the running gags on the NPR program "Car Talk" was their extensive list of (fictional) aptonyms, like Complaint Line Operator Levon Hold and staff drycleaner Preston Creases. A retronym (backward + name) is a word that had to be invented to distinguish an older technology from a newer one, like acoustic guitar, analog clock, brick-and-mortar store, and snail mail.

Something that struck me about all these terms is how true they are to their classical roots. The -onym part is Greek, of course. Most of the prefixes I listed are Greek (syno-, anto-, topo-, demo-, etc.), with just a few from Latin (contra-, apt-). But we English speakers, we are nothing if not inventive with our word parts. The -onym stem is, as linguists say, "productive" — we continue to use it to create new terms. And since we are primarily familiar with English, we're happy to combine -onym with whatever word seem useful in the moment, whether it's of classical or English origin.

A wonderful English-based name is a backronym, a form of acronym where the phrase it stands for was deliberately constructed so the acronym would form a word. Commonly cited examples are SAD (seasonal affective disorder) and MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving). As Ben Zimmer pointed out not long ago, people who name legislative bills seem especially fond of backronyms, with resulting laws like the USA PATRIOT Act and the DREAM Act.            

My current favorite among these -onyms is capitonym: words whose meanings are distinguished only by the use of capitalization, like turkey/Turkey, catholic/Catholic, and march/March. Some capitonyms even change pronunciation based on the capitalization, like august/August and polish/Polish. As listed in Wikipedia, an apparently unknown author has written some doggerel verse that highlights a few capitonymic pairs. Here's one of those poems:

Herb's Herbs
An herb store owner, name of Herb,
Moved to a rainier Mount Rainier.
It would have been so nice in Nice,
And even tangier in Tangier.

After this survey of -nonymous terms, maybe you're ready for a challenge. A while back, my friends and I had some fun cataloging what people call themselves who work for a company. At Microsoft, they're Microsofties; at Amazon, they're Amazonians. Google employees call themselves Googlers, Yahoo employees are Yahoos, and Nordstrom folks are Nordies. Here's the challenge: what kind of -onym term can we invent to describe this type of name?

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Mike Pope has been a technical writer and editor for nearly 30 years. He has worked at Microsoft and Amazon, and currently works at Tableau Software. You can read more at Mike's Web Log and Evolving English II. Click here to read more articles by Mike Pope.

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Comments from our users:

Wednesday May 8th 2013, 2:20 AM
Comment by: Chandru S. (Chaska, MN)
i luv this article. so nice. and clears many doubts i had.

we in mumbai call ourselves mumbaikars. earlier we were bombayites! almost all places have been so coined - bangaloreans, goans, delhites, upites, chennaikars etc etc. so much so that many of these names are now their surnames indicating, perhaps, thier place of origin. many would not have even visited those places even once in their lifetime!
Wednesday May 8th 2013, 5:12 AM
Comment by: Peter C. (Santa Barbara, CA)
"Here's the challenge: what kind of -onym term can we invent to describe this type of name?"

How about ergonym (work + name)?
Wednesday May 8th 2013, 6:04 AM
Comment by: Pedro Eleftheriou (São Paulo Brazil)
companym !
Wednesday May 8th 2013, 7:29 AM
Comment by: Elaine W.
From what people do "boycott" and "silhouette" arise? I get the other ones in the list, but when I looked these two up, I didn't find anything.
Wednesday May 8th 2013, 8:45 AM
Comment by: Orin Hargraves (CO)Visual Thesaurus Contributor
Great article, Mike!

I like "salarionym" for employee, from Latin salarium, "pension, salary."

I challenged a student yesterday about the grammaticality of the sentence "The Motet performed on Saturday" till he informed me that "Motet" was the name of a band. Capitonym hijinks.
Wednesday May 8th 2013, 9:39 AM
Comment by: Kristine F.Top 10 Commenter
Emponym (from employment, not to be confused with eponym).

The Happy Quibbler
Wednesday May 8th 2013, 10:17 AM
Comment by: Mike P. (Seattle, WA)Visual Thesaurus Contributor
These are great suggestions for words to refer to employees! Now we just have to get everyone to use one. :-)

@Elaine -- here are the origins:

boycott: after Charles C. Boycott (1832–97), English estate manager in Ireland, against whom nonviolent coercive tactics were used in 1880

silhouette: fr French "à la silhouette," after Etienne de Silhouette (1709–67), French finance minister

@Orin -- indeed, I had to look it up, but it seems your student is correct: The Motet, complete with "The," is their official name.
Wednesday May 8th 2013, 10:58 AM
Comment by: Westy (Paris, OH)
I would add an L to Kristine's word and make it "emplonym."
Wednesday May 8th 2013, 6:40 PM
Comment by: Sue B.
I cast my vote for "ergonym." It seems obvious once you hear it (always a good basis for a new word). Although I do like the slightly loopy sound of "emponym" (makes me think of "Mnym"), I still have to go with "ergonym."
Monday July 21st 2014, 2:14 PM
Comment by: Anonymous
Thanks for the great article! It would be nice if vocabulary.com had all of these terms in its dictionary--for example, there is no "contranym" (or "contronym" or "autoantonym").

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