Arithmetic, List 1

December 1, 2022
Review these terms and concepts related to basic arithmetic that may be tested on the Quantitative Reasoning section of the GRE test.
Elementary schools by and large do manage to teach the basic algorithms for multiplication and division, addition and subtraction, as well as methods for handling fractions, decimals, and percentages.
Without a positional notation system, arithmetic is tedious and hard, as schoolchildren learn when teachers force them to multiply or subtract with Roman numerals.
When you try to calculate the slope of a tangent line, zero wrecks your approximation process.
The job market remained strong despite the slowdown, as the Labor Department counted just 180,000 new unemployment claims, reflecting a decrease of 5,000 over the previous week’s revised level.
On a cosmic scale, the sun and the Voyager spacecraft are essentially the same distance from our nearest stellar neighbor.
A couple of brief multiplications, a simple division, and, bingo, you know your gravitational position wherever you go.
The euro is nearly equal to the dollar.
Recirculating tanks require huge amounts of energy to move and filter millions of gallons of water daily, and that water still holds waste that can pollute nearby rivers and estuaries.
Since the beginning of the eruption, the new underwater volcano has grown to a height of around 820 meter in a place where there was hardly any elevation before.
The Northeast has seen an increase of more than 50% in the heaviest precipitation events in recent decades, the largest increase of any region of the U.S.
In quantum mechanics, the shortest conceivable length in nature is 10⁻³³ centimeters, the so-called Planck length.
The smaller stars with lower masses live much longer, so we find them at every age, and they tend to be cooler and redder.
Measuring a property of one particle — its direction of spin, say — would instantaneously affect the measurement of its mate.
One obvious example of massive growth is the blue whale, which can reach colossal lengths of up to 30 meters at maturity.
In World War II, an extraordinary calculating machine commissioned by the U.S. military, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, could, each second, perform around 350 multiplications or 5,000 simple additions.
By about 2030, if the trend persists, Earth time will overtake atomic time by about a second — so metrologists will have to insert a negative leap second to keep the two time scales in sync.
In a sense these infinitesimals were infinitely small, smaller than any positive number you could name, yet still somehow greater than zero.
Having no fixed shape and no set boundary, an infinity puzzle can be assembled and reassembled in numerous ways, seemingly ad infinitum.
New research suggests these busybodies of the insect world are capable of addition and subtraction—using colors in the place of plus and minus symbols.
Later observations revealed that the brown dwarf is about the same width as Jupiter, with a diameter of nearly 129,000 kilometers, but much denser, with 70 times as much mass.

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