Arithmetic, List 2

December 1, 2022
Review these terms and concepts related to basic arithmetic that may be tested on the Quantitative Reasoning section of the GRE test.
Physicists like to compare the teleportation process to two cups of tea.
The small raised 2 is called an exponent, and it tells us how many times we moved the decimal point to the left.
All of these expressions, but especially 0/0, could take on any value you desire them to have, depending on the functions you put in the numerator and denominator.
The difference of 9 and 2 means subtract 9 and 2, in other words, 9 minus 2, which we write symbolically as 9 − 2.
Like the Babylonians, the Mayans had a place-value system of digits and places.
Unfortunately, they don’t do as effective a job in teaching when to add or subtract, when to multiply or divide, or how to convert from fractions to decimals or percentages.
It is sometimes convenient to use fractions instead of integers as intermediate coefficients in the process of balancing a chemical equation.
After doing their calculations with Babylonian notation, Greek astronomers usually converted the numbers back into clunky Greek-style numerals—without zero.
We can apply the properties of fractions to rational expressions, such as simplifying the expressions by canceling common factors from the numerator and the denominator.
Despite a good deal of opinion to the contrary, an item whose price has been increased by 50 percent and then reduced by 50 percent has had a net reduction in price of 25 percent.
We can write a polynomial dividend as the product of the divisor and the quotient added to the remainder.
Though they had slightly different surface textures, they had generally the same overall surface roughness and, therefore, similar aerodynamic properties.
In the course of a day, some 150 quarts of blood normally pass through the kidneys, with only a quart or two of liquid waste leaving the body as urine.
They can regrow not only limbs but also up to a quarter of their brain if it is cut out—handy for survival.
Like squares and triangles, lines were number-shapes, so dividing a string into two parts was the same as taking a ratio of two numbers.
We check division by multiplying the quotient by the divisor and adding the remainder.
One approach is to write the quotient in factored form and simplify.
In essence, a quantum computer runs all the possible variations of the program simultaneously to arrive at a solution.
Mathematically, he explained, the design is inspired by the “mind-boggling” topology of a Klein bottle: a “non-orientable closed surface,” with no inside, outside, up or down.
General merchandise sold for $25 to $40 will cost a big retailer “80 to 90 percent of the retail value of the goods in handling the product,” he added.

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