# Data Analysis, List 1

December 1, 2022
Review these terms and concepts related to data analysis that may be tested on the Quantitative Reasoning section of the GRE test.
analysis
It would be the first time that such priceless financial data had fallen into an economist’s hands, affording an analysis of a heretofore uncharted criminal enterprise.
association
At the same time, researchers are increasingly documenting the association between air pollution and its negative effects on mental health.
column
The draft report also confirms claims by the whistleblowers and independent statistical experts consulted by Science’s News team that a large Excel file containing the study’s raw data was riddled with inexplicably duplicated columns.
data
NASA, as a federal agency that funds and conducts research, is onboard with the idea of freely accessible data.
diagram
Each integral corresponds to one of the quirky diagrams concocted in 1948 by Richard Feynman to quickly figure out what to calculate for a particular particle interaction.
estimate
According to estimates by McKinsey and Company, the average automotive manufacturer may have links to as many as 18,000 suppliers in its full supply chain, from raw materials to components.
frequency
A substantial percentage of North Atlantic storms also pass over or near these islands, so these records appear to reflect changes in overall North Atlantic hurricane frequency through time.
interpret
The period is at least six months because good science takes time: cutting-edge observations, for instance, often require devising novel data-analysis techniques to interpret signals of low statistical significance.
mean
It depicted data as the bars of histograms and models as the means, or averages, of the data.
median
The median of inflation expectations for the next 12 months fell to 4.3% in August from 4.7% in July, which was the highest since the monthly survey of consumers began in February 2002.
method
With multiple variables, many are impossible to do by hand and require numerical methods.
mode
The dashed line indicates the ML estimate of the distribution mode, whereas the dotted lines delimit the corresponding 95% confidence intervals.
model
To the researchers involved, the model also represents a move toward a more precise, numbers-based means to describe the odor universe, which they hope could eventually bring this sense to the digital world.
pie chart
In a pie chart, categories of data are represented by wedges in a circle and are proportional in size to the percent of individuals in each category.
plot
Because of the flavor changing, a plot of each spectrum should itself exhibit a distinct wiggle or oscillation.
probability
That is, how many people would there have to be in a group in order for the probability to be half that at least two people in it have the same birthday?
quantity
A common way to illustrate “astronomical” is to compare the quantity in question with the number of atoms in the observable universe, estimated to be at most 1082.
range
Although he and others differ in what a clinically important result would be, they give a range of 0.5 to 2 points.
rate
Today our galaxy produces roughly one new star per year, but Castellano’s paper suggests that star-formation rates must have been at least 20 times higher in his and Naidu’s two candidate galaxies.
statistics
In this sense, statistics is to probability as engineering is to physics—an applied science based on a more intellectually stimulating foundational discipline.

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